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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2022
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 59-109

Online since Tuesday, July 12, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Influence of sexual habits on human papillomavirus infection risk and oral cancer p. 59
Alberto Rodriguez-Archilla, Raquel Suarez-Machado
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_73_21  
Certain sexual habits facilitate the oral spread of human papillomavirus (HPV), a virus involved in 70−90% of oropharyngeal cancers. This study aimed to investigate the influence of sexual habits, especially oral sex, on the risk of both HPV infection and oral cancer. We searched the following electronic databases for studies published between 1981 and 2018 on sexual behavior, HPV detection, and oral cancer: PubMed (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library), Web of Science (WoS), and Google Scholar. This meta-analysis included 36 studies involving 10,213 oral cancer patients (7,455 males and 2,758 females) and 52,195 subjects without oral cancer (21,172 males and 31,023 females). The data are expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The risk factors for oral cancer were first sexual contact before the age of 18 years (OR: 1.98; P < 0.01) and number of oral sex partners (> 5) (OR: 1.68; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between oral cancer patients and controls regarding oral sex practices (P = 0.53), number of sex partners (P = 0.20), number of couples in sex work (P = 0.61), and number of marriages (P = 0.29). Oral sex increased 1.96 times the probability of HPV infection (P < 0.001). Oral cancer patients who engaged in oral sex practices had a 2.75-fold increased risk of HPV positivity (P < 0.001). Oral sex practices may be an important risk factor for HPV infection and oral cancer.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Oral health-related quality of life of visually impaired children aged 7–18 years p. 67
Fitri Diah Oktadewi, Indah Titien Soeprihati, Lisdrianto Hanindriyo
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_14_22  
Background: Only few studies have examined the impact of dental health on the quality of life of visually impaired children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between oral health outcomes, socio-economic status, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in visually impaired children aged 7–18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in special schools in Yogyakarta and Central Java Province. This study involved 70 visually impaired schoolchildren (aged 7–18 years; boys, 55.7% and girls, 44.3%). To investigate the oral health outcomes of caries, oral hygiene, and dental trauma, the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Permanent/Primary Teeth (DMFT/dmft) Index, Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), and Traumatic Dental Injury Index were used. The Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Short Form 19 questionnaire was used to determine OHRQoL. Results: The mean DMFT Index and OHI-S scores were 4.8 ± 2.743 and 1.94 ± 0.84, respectively. Of the respondents, 22.9% had dental trauma. The Spearman correlation test showed no correlations between the mean OHRQoL score and DMFT/dmft score, no correlations between the mean OHRQoL and dental trauma, and no correlations between the mean OHRQoL and socio-economic status (P = 0.672, P = 0.551, and P = 0.465, respectively). The OHI-S score correlated with the OHRQoL score for the socio-emotional well-being domain (P = 0.031, r=−0.258). Conclusion: In the visually impaired children in this study, poor oral hygiene resulted in decreased OHRQoL. However, oral hygiene showed no significant relationships with dental trauma and socio-economic level, and caries showed no significant relationships with dental trauma and OHRQoL in these children.
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Effect of smear layer on calcium hydroxide removal from root canal using different systems: An ex-vivo study p. 74
Anantkumar A Heda, Narendrakumar U Manwar, Akshita G Rathi, Gayatri Deshmukh, Neelam Rahul, Deepashri A Tekam, Chandani M Bhatia
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_104_21  
Background: For successful multi-visit endodontic treatment, clinicians often use calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament, and it is necessary to completely remove it from canal before obturation. Presence or absence of a smear layer may play an important role in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal systems. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls using manual files, ultrasonic files, and an EndoActivator System under a stereomicroscope and to evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite solution and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with sodium hypochlorite solution on the removal of the smear layer from root canals during biomechanical preparation. Methods: A total of 80 extracted premolars were decoronated. They were divided into groups and subgroups, and then further evaluation was performed. Root canal instrumentation was done using #25, 0.06 taper nickel-titanium rotary files (Neoendo, Orikam, Gurgaon, India) using the crown-down technique. Samples were divided into two groups: Group A (with a smear layer) and Group B (without a smear layer), for the placement of calcium hydroxide. They were then divided into three subgroups to evaluate the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls using manual files, ultrasonic files, and an EndoActivator and were examined under a stereomicroscope at magnification 10× with image analysis software. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Results: The removal of calcium hydroxide from dentinal walls was significantly better in Group B (p <0.05) than in Group A in cervical, middle, and apical third of the canals. Conclusion: Removal of calcium hydroxide was more efficient in Group B (smear-free) than in Group A (with a smear layer), regardless of the technique used. A comparison of the techniques showed that ultrasonic files were more efficient in removing calcium hydroxide than manual files and EndoActivator System in both study groups.
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Characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite–collagen and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) composites by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy p. 80
Elline, Eko Fibryanto, Hiroko Gabriela Amanda
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_4_22  
Background: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) is most commonly used in vital pulp therapy, and it is the gold standard of pulp capping materials; however, it shows several limitations, including facile dissolution, stimulation of reparative dentin with tunnel defects, and inflammation. A previous study reported that nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) might induce reparative dentin with no tunnel defects much better than Ca(OH)2. Another study reported that the addition of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to collagen (Col) gel can increase pulp cell proliferation and differentiation via the change in its mechanical properties. Objective: In this study, nHA–Col and EGCG composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Methods: Each material (i.e., nHA, Col type 1, and EGCG) was dissolved in 2 mL of deionized water. Three groups with varied nHA:Col ratios were prepared: 40:60 (group 1), 50:50 (group 2), and 60:40 (group 3). Each solution was mixed together using a magnetic stirrer at 40°C, followed by the addition of 2% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) into the mixture. Morphology observation, Ca/P ratio, crystallographic phase analysis, and functional group analysis were investigated by SEM-EDS, XRD, and FTIR. Results: SEM-EDS analysis revealed irregular agglomerated nHA between Col fibrils and a non-stoichiometric Ca/P ratio (>1.67). XRD analysis revealed hexagonal-phase nHA. FTIR analysis revealed chemical interaction between nHA, Col, and EGCG. Conclusions: SEM-EDS and XRD analysis confirmed that nHA does not change when it is mixed with Col and EGCG, and FTIR analysis revealed hydrogen bonding among materials.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Successful treatment of laterally luxated teeth with traumatic occlusion in adolescent patient by single arch fixed orthodontic therapy: A case-report p. 87
Mohammad Kamran Khan, Mahendra Kumar Jindal
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_19_22  
Background: Luxation dental injuries are considered a severe form of traumatic dental injury (TDI) due to several factors. International association of dental traumatology (IADT) has suggested various treatment approaches for suitable clinical conditions of the injured tooth and other factors. Case Report: The current article presents a case report of the successful and effective clinical management of luxated permanent incisors in an adolescent patient’s traumatic occlusion (dental trauma-induced crossbite relation) by employing single-arch fixed orthodontic therapy with light forces using Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) archwire. Conclusion: Lateral luxation injuries with traumatic occlusion (locked position of involved teeth) can be effectively repositioned by orthodontic traction using light orthodontic forces of NiTi archwire, particularly in patients who seek dental treatment after a few days of a TDI event.
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Non-invasive rehabilitation of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta of a 14-year-old child p. 94
Majda Taher Elfseyie, Suha Ali Alfirjani, Bobaker Eed Said
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_23_22  
Background: Amelogenesis imperfecta is a rare developmental disorder. This condition can be quantitative as the hypoplastic type or qualitative as the hypomineralized hypomatured type. Case Report: This is the first clinical reported case in a 14-year-old Libyan female. It describes the oral management of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta using a non-invasive technique. Management aims to reduce teeth sensitivity, improve esthetics, preserve the vertical dimension of occlusion, and restore masticatory function. Satisfactory results were performed with a more preservative restoration with less expensive treatment. Follow-up observation was designed every 6 months to preserve tooth structure and to prevent excessive wear until the patient reached a suitable age for crown coverage. Conclusion: The clinical significance of such a case is to shed light on the importance of early detection and diagnosis that will help choose an appropriate treatment plan to preserve teeth structure until a crown replacement is reached. Additionally, an increase in the knowledge of general practitioners regarding the early intervention approach of these cases and their effect on treatment outcomes is also provided.
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Erosive oral lichen planus in an elderly patient: Effect on the quality of life: Case report p. 101
Yuli Fatzia Ossa, Anandina Irmagita Soegyanto, Harum Sasanti
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_3_22  
Background: Erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) causes pain, burning sensation, swelling, and bleeding and can affect the quality of life because of pain and discomfort. Here, we report a case of EOLP in an elderly patient, which decreased the quality of life, and a comprehensive management of the case. Case Report: A 75-year-old woman was referred to the Oral Medicine Department of Dental Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, with oral discomfort. She complained of pain during meals for 1 year, which results in weight loss. The patient admitted to the hospital because of psychological stress and hypertension. The clinical examination of the right buccal mucosa showed reticular plaque, and erosive and erythema lesions on the left buccal mucosa and soft palate. The patient was diagnosed with EOLP and treated with a topical corticosteroid and multivitamin, and also was treated for the management of stress. Conclusion: EOLP treatment in the elderly patients has its own challenges, because of chronic disease, affects the quality of life, and requires long-term therapy. Treatment must be comprehensive and must pay attention to the systemic and psychological condition of the patient.
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Re-establishment of quality of life and dietary habits after resection of a carcinomatous lesion: A case report p. 107
Ahila Singaravel Chidambaranathan, Culathur Thulasingam
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_8_22  
Background: Defects can be a congenital, developmental, or acquired one. Trauma or neoplasms, including malignant tumors of the maxilla treated with a maxillectomy, are frequent causes of acquired disfigurement of the orofacial region. Obturators fitted after a maxillectomy affect mastication, deglutition, phonation, and esthetic appearance, leading to loss of confidence post-surgery. Rehabilitation using a surgical obturator can restore confidence of patients particularly. Case Report: This case report describes a patient with a stage III adenocarcinoma in the center of the posterior aspect of the maxilla, which was classified as Aramony’s class III type of acquired palatal defect, in which a surgical obturator was placed immediately after surgery. Conclusion: The surgical obturator restored the patient’s confidence and quality of life (QoL) immediately after surgery of the palate by closing the defect that aids in phonetics and mastication and by easy maintenance.
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