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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2023
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-41

Online since Wednesday, May 17, 2023

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Chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws: A 7-year retrospective clinico-surgical evaluation in a tertiary hospital in Northwest Nigeria p. 1
Mujtaba Bala, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Abdulrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo, Sufiyanu Umar Yabo, Bashar Aliyu
Background: The incidence of chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw has declined in the developed world. However, it is still a burden in Northwestern Nigeria. Chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw occurs more commonly in the mandible, with sequestrectomy or jaw resection being the main treatment modality for the developing climes. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of clinical presentation of this disease condition and to highlight the important aspects of its management. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of chronic osteomyelitis seen and managed over a 7-year period. Sociodemographics, etiology, clinical features, investigations, and treatment modality were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Results: There were 36 (73.5%) males and 13 (26.5%) females in the age range of 7–87 years, with a mean ± standard deviation of 27.67 ± 21.13 years. The duration of symptoms ranged from 4 months to 3 years. Odontogenic infections were the main cause of osteomyelitis (44 [89.8%]), and the mandible (39 [79.6%]) was the most affected maxillofacial bone. The presenting complaints included pain, discharging sinuses, and swelling. Comorbidities, such as diabetes and hypertension, were recorded in five patients (10.2%). Plain radiographs and computed tomography scan were the imaging modalities. The majority, 36 (73.5%), had a sequestrectomy. There was no statistically significant difference between the affected jaw and the type of surgical procedure performed (χ2 = 1.801, df = 2, P value 0.406). Conclusion: This study found chronic osteomyelitis to be more common in the mandible and was mainly caused by an odontogenic infection. Prolonged antibiotic use, sequestrectomy, and jaw resection were used as the main approaches to its management in our locality.
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In vitro evaluation of the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement modified with propolis in different proportions p. 6
Advita Azalia, Deviyanti Pratiwi, Akhmad Endang Zainal Hasan, Rosalina Tjandrawinata, Eddy Eddy
Background: Antibacterial additives are frequently added in an effort to enhance the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cement (GIC). GIC modified with ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) has been proven to improve GIC’s antibacterial properties, but this modification is suspected to have detrimental impacts on its compressive strength. Objectives: To evaluate the compressive strength of GIC incorporated with different proportions of propolis extracts from Trigona spp. from Garut, Indonesia. Methods: This experimental in vitro laboratory study comsisted of 20 cylindrical glass ionomer specimens divided into four groups according to the proportions of propolis added to the GIC liquid: Group A: conventional GIC (control), Group B: 25% EEP added (% w/w), Group C: 30% EEP added (% w/w), and Group D: 35% EEP added (% w/w). A universal testing machine was used to assess compressive strength after the samples were immersed in artificial saliva and incubated for 24 h. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (P < 0.05). Results: The addition of EEP decreased the compressive strength of the GIC liner. Mean compressive strength values were 118.06 ± 24.1 MPa (Group A), 103.17 ± 10.26 MPa (Group B), 79.18 ± 9.99 MPa (Group C), and 77.03 ± 6.13 MPa (Group D). In comparison to the control group, a nonsignificant difference was observed when 25% EEP was added (P > 0.05), whereas both 30% EEP and 35% EEP resulted in significant decreases in compressive strength (P < 0.05). Conclusion: GIC modified with 25% EEP might be a promising restorative material for cavity linings.
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The potential of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) ethanol extract in inhibiting nitric oxide secretion in fibroblast p. 11
Sherlyn Mangkulion, Moehamad Orliando Roeslan, Paopanga Monthanpisut
Background: Imperata cylindrica or cogon grass is a kind of sharp-leaved grass that often becomes a weed on agricultural land. In traditional medicine, I. cylindrica is often used as a fever-lowering and anti-inflammatory drug. Research has shown that I. cylindrica can provide anti-inflammatory effects. Nitric oxide (NO) is a mediator produced in various mammalian cells and can be used as an inflammatory marker. Objective: To evaluate whether the ethanol extract of I. cylindrica can affect the ability of fibroblasts to secrete NO. Methods: Fibroblasts were stimulated using Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and treated with the ethanol extract of I. cylindrica at concentrations of 50, 80, 160, 320, and 640 part per million, and then the Griess test was performed. Results: There was a significant difference between the ethanol extract of I. cylindrica (640 part per million) and the negative control group. Conclusion: The ethanol extract of I. cylindrica (L.) Raeusch at a concentration of 640 part per million has the effect of lowering NO secretion in fibroblasts.
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Periodontitis as a risk factor for stroke: A hospital-based case–control study p. 15
Mayank Kalpdev, Rashmi Gupta, Kusum Singh, Veer Bahadur Singh, Saranshi Singh, Harish Kumar
Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality worldwide. Identification of the association between stroke and its risk factor is essential. Objective: Our aim was to study the relationship between gum infections such as periodontitis as a risk factor for cerebral ischemic stroke and its correlation of periodontitis staging for stroke. Methods: This prospective hospital-based case–control study involved 100 cases with their first episode of stroke compared with 100 controls without stroke. Clinical parameterswere recorded—such as “periodontal index,” radiographic bone loss, tooth loss, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL), all important parameters for assessing periodontal destruction loss of connective tissue attachment to the tooth root surface. Results: Groups were comparable according to age and sex. Statistically significant differences were observed according to associated diseases and investigations, with all the parameters higher for the case group compared to the controls (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding a family history of cerebral vascular attack. A significant difference was observed for carotid intima-medial thickness, whereas there was no significant difference regarding side. No statistically significant differences were observed according to the total number of teeth lost, interdental CAL, carotid artery atherosclerosis, and 2D echocardiography. Conclusion: There is a strong relationship between periodontal disease and ischemic stroke. Periodontitis is an independent risk factor for cerebral ischemia and is a treatable and preventable disease. Adequate treatment can reduce the incidence of stroke.
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Cytotoxicity test of chicken eggshell-based hydroxyapatite on human dental pulp cells p. 22
Jeremy Utama, Elline Elline, Aryadi Subrata, Anastasia Elsa Prahasti, Syuwari Azhar Azman
Background: Materials such as calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] are commonly used for vital pulp therapy in dentistry, but they have some limitations. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is able to induce reparative dentin; therefore, it can be used as an alternative to Ca(OH)2 for pulp treatment. However, pulp treatment materials should have some ideal characteristics, including low toxicity. The toxicity test is essential to ensure the biological safety of pulp treatment materials. Objective: To determine the toxicity of various concentrations of HA derived from eggshell waste to human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Methods: We determined the viability of the hDPSCs after exposure to 1%, 2%, or 4% HA by the diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay method to measure cell viability and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader to calculate the optical density. Results: The viability values of the hDPSCs exposed to 1%, 2%, and 4% HA were 84.1%, 86.75%, and 95.03%, respectively. HA concentration had no significant effect on hDPSC proliferation. Conclusion: Chicken eggshell HA is a nontoxic material that has the potential to support human dental pulp cell proliferation, which is one of the essential criteria for a pulp treatment material.
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Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract on multispecies Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola biofilms in vitro p. 26
Angela Winson, Trijani Suwandi, Olivia Nauli Komala
Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are bacteria that play a crucial role in periodontitis. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and tannins; compounds which are expected to inhibit biofilm formation with minimal side effects. Objectives: To determine the secondary metabolite compounds present in H. sabdariffa L. and its effect on multispecies biofilms formation consisted of P. gingivalis and T. denticola. Methods: This study used H. sabdariffa L. calyx extract with concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, and 1.5625%. The positive control used in this study was 0.2% chlorhexidine, and the negative control was brain heart infusion broth. The bacterial biofilm was grown for 1, 6, and 24 hours. Results: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. 1.5625% extracted in a 1-h incubation period, 6.25% extracted in a 6-h incubation period, and 3.25% extracted in a 24-h incubation period are more effective than chlorhexidine 0.2% in inhibiting multispecies P. gingivalis and T. denticola biofilms (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx extract significantly inhibits multispecies P. gingivalis and T. denticola biofilm with the most effective concentration at 100% at 1-h, 6-h, and 24-h incubation periods. Future studies are needed to test the toxicity of H. sabdariffa L. on cells in the oral cavity.
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Case series of low-level laser therapy for minor ulceration: Diverse outcomes related to predisposing factors p. 33
Ratna Kumala Indrastiti, Indriasti Indah Wardhany, Masita Mandasari, Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani
Background: There are many strategies to alleviate the pain and suffering associated with oral mucosal ulcers. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has recently been widely used as a treatment for oral lesions because of its modalities in promoting ulcer healing and reducing pain and discomfort. Case Report: Three patients aged 22–24 years old came to the Universitas Indonesia Dental Hospital with the chief complaint of ulcers in the mouth. Two patients were diagnosed with minor recurrent aphthous ulceration and the third patient with aphthous ulceration. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess the patients’ pain. The VAS scores of each patient were recorded before, immediately after, and 30 min after the application of LLLT. The patients were followed up on the second and third days after treatment. All patients reported a significant reduction of VAS, but there were dissimilar results in the ulcer healing process. Conclusion: Several factors (e.g., local and systemic conditions that may affect wound healing and the location of the lesions) must be considered in determining the success of LLLT.
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Management of early infancy tooth following natal tooth extraction: An unusual case report p. 39
Santoshni Samal, Ratna Renu Baliarsingh, Prayas Ray, Sushmita Pattanaik
Natal teeth are those that are present at birth, whereas neonatal teeth, also called as “early infancy teeth,” appear within 30 days after birth, which is an unusual and rare situation. The exact etiology of neonatal, or early infancy teeth, is unknown, and various factors may be related to these teeth. Both natal and early infancy teeth are important for pediatric dentists and pediatricians. This case report describes the management of a 24-day-old infant with a mobile mandibular natal tooth related to Riga–Fede disease. After 45 days, an early infancy tooth was diagnosed, followed by extraction of the tooth, so correct diagnosis and management is important.
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