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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2022
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-57

Online since Monday, February 21, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Review of using saliva for COVID-19 testing p. 1
Jessica Endriyana, Endang Winiati Bachtiar
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_100_21  
Saliva is a hypotonic solution of gingival, salivary acini, and exudate sulcus fluid from the oral mucosa. Saliva contains proteins, DNA, RNA, micro-RNA, and metabolites; hence, it can be detected early in viruses, bacteria, as well as systemic diseases. It has been reported to show an ideal role in the isolation of proteins, peptides, and batches of viruses by molecular assays. Previously, saliva has been used as a biomarker to help detect oral cancer, caries, periodontal disease, diabetes, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Investigate research on saliva development as well as the utilized laboratory techniques serving as diagnostic methods for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are the main goals in this study, and the author utilizes the standards set out in the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systemic search was performed by one independent reviewer based on PubMed and Google Scholar in July 2021 using the following search terms: “Saliva” OR “saliva assay” AND “diagnosis” AND “COVID-19” OR “SARS-CoV-2” in PubMed. Notably, saliva contains a collection of analytes that show potential to be biomarkers for clinical and translational applications; hence, saliva can be used as an effective biofluid in clinical diagnostics. The passive droll saliva technique may be more homogenous than spitting, and it also can prevent the impact of the inhibitory substance. Saliva specimens are beneficial to the safety of healthcare professionals; these specimens can be a substantial source of virus in saliva for dental professionals, especially in the primary stages of illness, and cotton and calcium alginate swabs may contain compounds that interfere with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and render some viruses inactive. Based on some of the above statements, the collection of only saliva can be used as an alternative specimen during the early stages of symptoms for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
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Immunocytochemistry and western blot test for the in-situ detection of biomarkers of osteogenesis p. 10
Priska Natassya, Endang Winiati Bachtiar
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_101_21  
There are two ways that bones can form: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Specific osteogenic markers, such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), osteocalcin (OCN), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osterix (OSX), accompany osteoblast differentiation from an undifferentiated state to a functional state. IGF-1 hormones are the main regulators in growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in cells and tissues mediated by IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R). Biomolecular technology aims to study nucleic acids and their regulation and expression of proteins. Techniques that can be used when analyzing proteins include the Bradford protein assay, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the western blot test. To better understand the biomarkers of osteogenesis, the use of in-situ detection is suggested, such as immunocytochemistry and the western blot test. For this review, the author adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) standards. The research examined 50 articles; only 4 articles were selected for this review. In the immunocytochemical test, IGF-1 expression was found in the nucleus and IGF-1R expression in the cell membrane, and it was found that RUNX2, OSN, and OCN are important for osteogenesis. During the western blot test, it was found that the addition of IGF-1 in dental stem cells could increase the expression of RUNX2, OSX, and OCN proteins. Based on this information, it appears that both immunocytochemistry and western blot tests can detect the main biomarkers of osteogenesis.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Correlation between gingival crevicular fluid levels of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 8 and periodontal disease p. 18
Purva Chougule, Avni Raju Pradeep, Patil Rujuta, S Swathika
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_105_21  
Background: Periodontal disease is an inflammation caused by host parasite interaction leading to the destruction of tooth supporting structures. During inflammation there is an elevated levels of biochemical signalling molecules. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8) molecule has been implicated in various physiologic functions and pathologies. The expression of ADAM8 is upregulated in inflammatory conditions, and with upregulated expression they play a pivotal role in inflammation, immunity and osteoclastogenesis. Objective: To evaluate ADAM8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from healthy individuals and individuals with periodontal disease at baseline and in the periodontal disease group after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Methods: In total, 48 subjects aged 20–65 years were divided into separate groups: a periodontally healthy group (group 1: males, n = 7, females, n = 9), a chronic gingivitis group (group 2: males, n = 6, females, n = 10), and a chronic periodontitis group (group 3: males, n = 8, females, n = 8). GCF samples were collected from all the groups at baseline and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy in the chronic gingivitis (group 4) and chronic periodontitis (group 5) cases. Statistical analysis was performed using Shapiro-wilk normality test, One way ANOVA test, Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman’s rank correlation test and multiple linear regression analysis was done. The level of significance was determined at P < 0.05. Results: ADAM8 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher in group 3 (26,416.25 ± 7,817.59) than groups 1 and 2 at baseline at P < 0.001. After non-surgical periodontal therapy, ADAM8 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid was significantly reduced for group 2 (13,186.88 ± 3,247.62) and group 3 (18,375.63 ± 3,339.07) at P < 0.001. Conclusion: ADAM8 levels were increased in chronic gingivitis (group 2) and chronic periodontitis group (group 3) and reduced after non-surgical periodontal therapy in groups 2 and 3.
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Wound healing potential of forest honey for increasing TGF-β1 protein expression in palatoplasty: In-vivo and In-silico studies p. 25
Alifah Nur Aida, Reine Zhafirah, Helmi Hirawan, Abdul Haris Budi Widodo, Christina Cahyani Prihastuti, Tirta Wardana
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_95_21  
Background: With negative side effects of a lengthy healing time and high complication rate, cleft palate surgery is employed to treat cleft palate, which is a common congenital anomaly. Honey is believed to help accelerate wound healing post-treatment. However, its effect on the increase in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression after palate surgery is unclear. Objective: This study investigates the effect of forest honey on TGF-β1 protein expression levels in the wound healing palate model. Methods: This study evaluates the TGF-β1 protein expression of a palatoplasty wound model using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For this purpose, a punch biopsy model with 30 Sprague-Dawley rats is treated with forest honey (TG), Aloclair Gel (PC), and distilled water (NC) for 3 days. Analysis of the TGF-β1 expression on day 4 is performed by statistical one-way analysis of variance and post hoc least significance difference, with a 0.05 significant P-value. Online website software helped to predict the effect of honey components on the TGF-β1 expression. Results: Protein levels of treatment group (T), negative control (NC), and positive control (PC) exhibit mean levels of 16.13 ± 1.06883 ng/L, 7.36 ± 0.16543 ng/L, and 15.03 ± 0.34221 ng/L, respectively. The differential expression T group exhibits a 2.19-fold change in TGF-β1 relative to the NC group and a 1.07-fold change in the PC group (P-value of 0.01). TGF expression in the PC group increases in comparison to that in the NC group by 2.04-fold (P-value of 0.01). In-silico analysis revealed that genistein promotes macrophage proliferation and activation via the increase in the TGF-β1 expression. Conclusion: In summary, forest honey can boost the TGF protein expression via genistein to increase macrophage proliferation and activation.
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Dissolving efficacy of xylene on epoxy resin-based and bioceramic-based root canal sealers p. 32
Cindy Willie, Aryadi
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_86_21  
Background: Epoxy resin-based and bioceramic-based root canal sealers are used in endodontic treatment as root canal obturation materials because they are considered to have many advantages. The complete removal of these materials during root canal retreatment is crucial in order to ensure adequate disinfection. Due to the difficulty in accessing root canal ramifications, removal of these filling materials without damaging the teeth can be successfully achieved using endodontic solvents. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility of two types of root canal sealers in xylene used in endodontics. Methods: A total of 34 epoxy resin and bioceramic samples were stored for 72 h in an incubator to set. The samples were then immersed for 2 min in 1 mL of xylene. The excess xylene on the samples was drained with an absorbent paper and stored in an incubator for 24 h to dry. The pre- and post-immersion weight of the samples was measured using a digital analytical scale, then the weight difference between the groups was analyzed using the independent t test at a 5% significance level. Results: No significant difference was observed between the epoxy resin-based root canal sealer group and the bioceramic-based root canal sealer group (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: Xylene endodontic solvent has a similar efficacy for removing epoxy resin-based and bioceramic-based root canal sealers in in vitro study.
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Multiparameter image analysis to evaluate dentinal tubules patency after using different irrigation protocols p. 36
Mohamed Ahmed Elsayed
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_109_21  
Background: Scoring systems have been used to evaluate dentinal tubule patency in several papers; however, these conventional systems are time-consuming and rely primarily on evaluator estimation with a wide range of subjective variations. Objectives: A multiparameter, simple, and objective method is introduced to evaluate the ability of different irrigation protocols for smear layer removal and dentinal tubule patency enhancement. To show the applicability of this method, the effect of different irrigation regimens was evaluated. Methods: Ninety extracted single-rooted teeth were decapitated and shaped with ProTaper to size F4. According to the final irrigation protocol, specimens were divided into three groups: Group 1 (final irrigation of SmearOFF), Group 2 (17% EDTA), and Group 3 (negative control). Groups 1 and 2 were subdivided into two subgroups: Subgroup (A) was activated by an ultrasonic file, whereas samples in Subgroup (B) did not receive any activation. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Images were analyzed using ImageJ software, and the multiparameter image analysis method (relative total surface area, average size, and the number of opened dentinal tubules) was applied. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, was applied to reveal any significant differences (P < 0.05) among groups, activation techniques, and root thirds. Results: Passive ultrasonic activation led to a significant increase in the patency of dentinal tubules especially at the apical third, which was measured and shown by the triple parameter method. Conclusion: Digital image analysis shows potential and advantages for the objective evaluation of dentinal tubules and should replace the traditional subjective scoring system method.
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Oral defensiveness in children with autism spectrum disorders at Biruku Foundation, Bandung p. 42
Jody, Agus Susanto, Inne Suherna Sasmita
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_99_21  
Background: Oral defensiveness (OD) is a reaction to avoid stimulation of touch, texture, or taste of certain foods and feeling irritated with any activities involving the mouth in general. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have OD have difficulty with anything that involves touching in and around the child’s mouth. OD can lead to fight or flight reactions including screaming, aggressive behavior, and withdrawal in an effort to avoid stimuli. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess OD in children with ASD at the Biruku Foundation, Bandung. Methods: A descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach using total sampling technique was conducted with the parents of 24 children with ASD at the Biruku Foundation, Bandung with inclusion criteria—children with ASD who had been diagnosed by a pediatrician—and exclusion criteria—parents of children who were unwilling to participate. The research used an Oral Sensory Processing Questionnaire by Winnie Dun (1999) with a total of 12 questions. Respondents filled out the questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale. Results were classified into three categories: typical, probable, and definite. Results: A total of 10 respondents (41.7%) were classified as typical (normal), 6 (25.0%) were classified as probable (moderate), and 8 (33.3%) were classified as definite (OD). Overall, 14 children with ASD (58.3%) were classified as having OD. Conclusion: Most children with ASD at the Biruku Foundation, Bandung have OD.
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A cross-sectional study on the role of film stars and peers in smoking initiation and tobacco use among male adolescents aged 13–15 years in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India p. 48
Anusha Raghavan, Nishanthi B Murali, Dian Farhana Binti Alba, Aparna Sukumaran, Madan Kumar Parangimalai Diwakar
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_110_21  
Background: Exposure to tobacco at a young age leads to a subsequent smoking habit in large proportions of the population in adulthood. Social and mass media have both positive and negative effects on adolescents’ behavior and social skills and therefore play vital roles in driving this behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of film stars on smoking initiation and tobacco use among male adolescents aged 13–15 years in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study adopted a cross-sectional design. In total, 200 students from schools that serve low-income households participated in the study. All the students completed a 20-item questionnaire on the perceived severity of smoking, perceived barriers to quitting, and factors affecting quitting. Results: None of the participants had a history of smoking. One (0.5%) participant stated that he smoked daily. All the participants agreed that exposure to media images of smoking behavior among their favorite film stars would not encourage them to smoke. In terms of peer pressure, one (0.5%) participant stated that he would accept a cigarette if offered one by a friend. Only descriptive information of the collected data was tabulated as the aim of the study was to collect the baseline data and not to test any prespecified hypothesis. Conclusion: In our study, peer pressure seemed to play more influence on the smoking initiation by adolescents than the film stars on mass media. Though all of them agreed that they would not be provoked by media images of film stars smoking, one participant was likely to initiate the habit on being offered by his friend. Hence, the evidence suggests the need for reorientation of research modalities to better identify early initiators of smoking.
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CASE REPORT Top

White lesions that can be wiped off: A case report of oral mucosal peeling p. 53
Ambar Kusuma Astuti, Febrina Rahmayanti
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_96_21  
Background: Oral mucosal peeling (OMP) refers to an asymptomatic white lesion commonly encountered in daily practice but rarely discussed in the literature. OMP can be induced by various daily oral care products. Although common, some clinicians may not be familiar with OMP. In this case report, we describe a case of widespread OMP associated with toothpaste and mouthwash use. Case Report: A 40-year-old man presented with asymptomatic white lesions, with thin sloughing appearance in the whole oral mucosa. The patient was healthy, with no routine use of medications. The lesions were easily removed using a sterile gauze, with no subsequent erosion or ulceration occurring. The lesions were attributed to the use of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-containing toothpaste and a mouthwash containing chlorhexidine (CHX) and essential oils. The patient was advised about the benign nature of the lesions. Discontinuation of SLS-containing toothpaste was suggested. Conclusion: OMP is commonly associated with the use of SLS-containing toothpastes and dentifrices and mouthwashes containing essential oils or CHX with the use of SLS-containing toothpastes and dentifrices and mouthwashes containing essential oils or CHX. Dentists must be able to identify OMP and provide appropriate patient education.
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