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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-21

Periodontitis as a risk factor for stroke: A hospital-based case–control study

1 Department of Medicine, Jawahar Lal Medical College, Ajmer, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Jawahar Lal Medical College, Ajmer, India
3 Department of Dentistry, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, India
4 Department of Medicine, Intern, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, India
5 Department of Emergency Medicine, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Kusum Singh
Department of Dentistry, Sardar Patel Medical College, PBM Hospital, Bikaner 334001, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_54_22

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Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality worldwide. Identification of the association between stroke and its risk factor is essential. Objective: Our aim was to study the relationship between gum infections such as periodontitis as a risk factor for cerebral ischemic stroke and its correlation of periodontitis staging for stroke. Methods: This prospective hospital-based case–control study involved 100 cases with their first episode of stroke compared with 100 controls without stroke. Clinical parameterswere recorded—such as “periodontal index,” radiographic bone loss, tooth loss, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL), all important parameters for assessing periodontal destruction loss of connective tissue attachment to the tooth root surface. Results: Groups were comparable according to age and sex. Statistically significant differences were observed according to associated diseases and investigations, with all the parameters higher for the case group compared to the controls (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding a family history of cerebral vascular attack. A significant difference was observed for carotid intima-medial thickness, whereas there was no significant difference regarding side. No statistically significant differences were observed according to the total number of teeth lost, interdental CAL, carotid artery atherosclerosis, and 2D echocardiography. Conclusion: There is a strong relationship between periodontal disease and ischemic stroke. Periodontitis is an independent risk factor for cerebral ischemia and is a treatable and preventable disease. Adequate treatment can reduce the incidence of stroke.

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